Example

Idris is a purely functional programming language, with first class types - meaning that types are first class language constructs, and can be computed, stored in variables, passed to and returned from functions, just like any other first class construct. Even so, we still have to start with "Hello world":

main : IO ()
main = putStrLn "Hello, Idris world"

A good place to start to find out what first class types mean in practice is the (free) first chapter of Type Driven Development with Idris. Briefly, it means you can write functions to calculate types:

IntOrString : (isInt : Bool) -> Type
IntOrString True = Int
IntOrString False = String

...and a function which calculates a type can itself be used in a type. The following function either converts an Int to a String, or reverse the String:

showOrReverse : (isInt : Bool) -> IntOrString isInt -> String
showOrReverse True x = show x
showOrReverse False x = reverse x

Contrived as this may seem, this sort of mechanism allows us to give types to printf-like functions (full details omitted here, but you can see it in the tests, where the example is taken from the Type Driven Development book):

printf : (format : String) -> PrintfType format

Idris data types are declared using a similar syntax to Haskell data types. For example, natural numbers, an option type and lists are declared in the standard library:

data Nat     = Z       | S Nat
data Maybe a = Nothing | Just a
data List a  = Nil     | (::) a (List a)

Functions are implemented by pattern matching. For example, addition on natural numbers can be defined as follows, again taken from the standard library:

(+) : Nat -> Nat -> Nat
Z     + y = y
(S k) + y = S (k + y)

Having types as a first class construct means that we can write functions to compute types, as with printf above. Also, it means that we can include values in types, to make those types more descriptive. A dependent type is a type which is computed from, or depends on, another value.

A classic introductory example of a dependent type is the type of vectors, which are lists which carry their size in the type. They are declared as follows in the standard library, by giving explicit types for each of the constructors:

data Vect : Nat -> Type -> Type where
    Nil  : Vect Z a
    (::) : a -> Vect k a -> Vect (S k) a

The types of functions defined over vectors will then state explicitly in the type how the function affects the size of the vectors. For example, if we append two vectors, the length of the result is the sum of the lengths of the inputs:

app : Vect n a -> Vect m a -> Vect (n + m) a
app Nil       ys = ys
app (x :: xs) ys = x :: app xs ys

For more details, see the tutorial.

Talks

For more introductory details, you can watch some recently recorded conference talks: